While the sedimentation event itself might be relatively short-lived, the ecological disruption caused by the mass die off often persists long into the future. What Is Soil Erosion? Saltating sand erodes metastable loess ground: events in the impact zone. Erosion is the gradual destruction and removal of rock or soil in a particular area by rivers, the sea, or the weather. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. makes accurate modelling challenging. On-site impacts include decreases in agricultural productivity and (on natural landscapes) ecological collapse, both because of loss of the nutrient-rich upper soil layers. It is this layer of soil that is endangered by wind and water erosion. ‘Soil compaction causes farmers a lot of problems by preventing moisture from seeping down to plant roots and by increasing water runoff and wind erosion.’ ‘Such factors affect both water and wind erosion (particularly important in northwestern Ohio).’ Splash erosion is generally seen as the first and least severe stage in the soil erosion process, which is followed by sheet erosion, then rill erosion and finally gully erosion (the most severe of the four).[5][6]. The loss of soil fertility due to erosion is further problematic because the response is often to apply chemical fertilizers, which leads to further water and soil pollution, rather than to allow the land to regenerate. Rill Erosion. John Wiley & Sons. N°3. This is a serious problem for farmers.If the soil has eroded, the crops that make food will not grow very well.. If the runoff has sufficient flow energy, it will transport loosened soil particles (sediment) down the slope. There are various solutions to soil erosion, which depend on the conditions under which erosion occurs. [84][85][86] Erosion models are also non-linear, which makes them difficult to work with numerically, and makes it difficult or impossible to scale up to making predictions about large areas from data collected by sampling smaller plots. [98][99] Thus new soil erosion models continue to be developed. Soil Erosion is one form of soil degradation. [83], Monitoring and modeling of erosion processes can help people better understand the causes of soil erosion, make predictions of erosion under a range of possible conditions, and plan the implementation of preventative and restorative strategies for erosion. Gilley, in Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment, 2005. [97] But because of the complexity of soil erosion and its constituent processes, all erosion models can only roughly approximate actual erosion rates when validated i.e. The second group deals with soil deterioration in-situ. See more. Exacerbating this is the fact that most of the trees are generally removed from agricultural fields, allowing winds to have long, open runs to travel over at higher speeds. However, the complexity of erosion processes and the number of scientific disciplines that must be considered to understand and model them (e.g. Gravity can cause landslides which can significantly erode an area. [104] Terracing is an extremely effective means of erosion control, which has been practiced for thousands of years by people all over the world. Soil Erosion. [55] Much of the sediment carried in runoff from urban areas (especially roads) is highly contaminated with fuel, oil, and other chemicals. Soil is a finite resource, meaning its loss and degradation is not recoverable within a human lifespan. Gravity - The force of gravity can cause erosion by pulling rocks and other particles down the side of a mountain or cliff. [48], In an undisturbed forest, the mineral soil is protected by a layer of leaf litter and an humus that cover the forest floor. Most soil erosion is caused by natural sources like wind and rain. Others include mono-cropping, farming on steep slopes, pesticide and chemical fertilizer usage (which kill organisms that bind soil together), row-cropping, and the use of surface irrigation. [11][12][13], Valley or stream erosion occurs with continued water flow along a linear feature. The agents of soil erosion are water and wind, each contributing a significant amount of soil loss each year. See more. Rill Erosion is the third stage of soil erosion. [96], During the 50 years since the introduction of the USLE, many other soil erosion models have been developed. The removal and thinning of the soil layer due to climatic and physical processes, such as high rainfall, which is greatly accelerated by certain human activities, such as deforestation. [4] However, there are many prevention and remediation practices that can curtail or limit erosion of vulnerable soils. In such situations, rainfall amount rather than intensity is the main factor determining the severity of soil erosion by water. the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model [102]) abandoned usage of USLE elements. In accordance with these agents, erosion is sometimes divided into water erosion, glacial erosion, snow erosion, wind (aeolean) erosion, zoogenic erosion and anthropogenic erosion. 2. In some cases, the eventual end result is desertification. Soil erosion was mitigated by the planting of trees. Soil erosion in India is widespread and a serious threat to survival and well-being. Soil conservation definition is - the prevention or reduction of soil erosion and soil depletion by protective measures against water and wind damage. e‧ro‧sion /ɪˈrəʊʒən $ ɪˈroʊ-/ ●○○ AWL noun [ uncountable] 1 the process by which rock or soil is gradually destroyed by wind, rain, or the sea the problem of soil erosion the erosion of the coastline 2 They also harbour w western Europe), runoff and erosion result from relatively low intensities of stratiform rainfall falling onto previously saturated soil. This natural process is caused by the dynamic activity of erosive agents, that is, water, ice (glaciers), snow, air (wind), plants, animals, and humans. Soil erosion may be a slow process that continues relatively unnoticed, or it may occur at an alarming rate causing a serious loss of topsoil. [35], Vegetation acts as an interface between the atmosphere and the soil. Steeper areas … Find more ways to say erosion, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at Thesaurus.com, the world's most trusted free thesaurus. [25], Mass movement is the downward and outward movement of rock and sediments on a sloped surface, mainly due to the force of gravity. Thus, if rainfall amounts and intensities increase in many parts of the world as expected, erosion will also increase, unless amelioration measures are taken. ‘Vigorously growing crops hold the soil and nutrients in place while protecting the soil from wind and water erosion.’ ‘If the soil is subject to wind and water erosion, it will be important to provide cover to protect the soil.’ [113] There is a higher potential for erosion when producing potatoes than when growing cereals, or oilseed crops. [30], Surface creep is the slow movement of soil and rock debris by gravity which is usually not perceptible except through extended observation. [29], Slumping happens on steep hillsides, occurring along distinct fracture zones, often within materials like clay that, once released, may move quite rapidly downhill. Introduction : Soil erosion is a two ways word. If the soil has eroded, the crops that make food will not grow very well. It also reduces their food supply, and causes major respiratory issues for them as sediment enters their gills. Soil erosion can lead to a loss of agricultural land and if unchecked, eventually results in desertification. [54], Urbanization has major effects on erosion processes—first by denuding the land of vegetative cover, altering drainage patterns, and compacting the soil during construction; and next by covering the land in an impermeable layer of asphalt or concrete that increases the amount of surface runoff and increases surface wind speeds. [76], One of the most serious and long-running water erosion problems worldwide is in the People's Republic of China, on the middle reaches of the Yellow River and the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. Soil erosion can lead to a loss of agricultural land and if unchecked, eventually results in desertification. or physical soil degradation process. Tillage action moves soil to convergent areas of a field where surface water runoff concentrates. 4. [95], Despite the USLE's plot-scale spatial basis, the model has often been used to estimate soil erosion on much larger areas, such as watersheds, continents, and globally. Erosion and changes in the form of river banks may be measured by inserting metal rods into the bank and marking the position of the bank surface along the rods at different times. [111][112] Crop residues play a role in the mitigation of erosion, because they reduce the impact of raindrops breaking up the soil particles. Usually erosion also involves the transport of eroded material from one … Annual erosion rates along a 100-kilometre (62-mile) segment of the Beaufort Sea shoreline averaged 5.6 metres (18 feet) per year from 1955 to 2002. Both weathering and erosion are geological processes. This means that rills exhibit hydraulic physics very different from water flowing through the deeper wider channels of streams and rivers. However, in order to maintain sediment balance, adequate mangrove forest width needs to be present.[116]. The term is often used in agriculture to refer to topsoil that is moved by natural forces or through agricultural activities such as tillage. [106] In addition to significantly reducing wind erosion, windbreaks provide many other benefits such as improved microclimates for crops (which are sheltered from the dehydrating and otherwise damaging effects of wind), habitat for beneficial bird species,[107] carbon sequestration,[108] and aesthetic improvements to the agricultural landscape. It takes place in both dry and wet areas. “Unsustainable rates of erosion reduce soil fertility and can have devastating environmental impacts downstream in waterways,” said lead author Dr Pia Benaud, of the University of Exeter. Unfortunately, due to improper cultivation practices coupled with windstorms and excessive rainfall, erosion may accelerate. [46] Tillage also increases wind erosion rates, by dehydrating the soil and breaking it up into smaller particles that can be picked up by the wind. This is geological erosion.. 42 p, greater than the rate at which water can infiltrate, preventative and restorative strategies for erosion, "Short-Term Impacts of Livestock Grazing on Vegetation and Track Formation in a High Mountain Environment: A Case Study from the Himalayan Miyar Valley (India)", "Hysteretic sediment fluxes in rainfall-driven soil erosion: Particle size effects", "Hydraulics and erosion in eroding rills", "Modern Erosion Rates and Loss of Coastal Features and Sites, Beaufort Sea Coastline, Alaska", "Hydroclimatology of wind erosion in arid and semi-arid environments", https://infosys.ars.usda.gov/WindErosion/Symposium/proceedings/jefferso.pdf, "Hillside processes: mass wasting, slope stability, and erosion", "Assessing the effects of land use and topography on soil erosion on the Loess Plateau in China", "Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability", "Countries and the global rate of soil erosion", "Soil movement by tillage and other agricultural activities", "Channel and habitat change downstream of urbanization", "Second Assessment Synthesis of Scientific-Technical Information relevant to interpreting Article 2 of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change", "Impact of climate change on soil erosion and the efficiency of soil conservation practices in Austria", "Runoff and soil loss responses to changes in precipitation: a computer simulation study", "Expected climate change impacts on soil erosion rates: A review", "Towards estimates of future rainfall erosivity in Europe based on REDES and WorldClim datasets", "Land use and climate change impacts on global soil erosion by water (2015-2070)", "Soil-erosion and runoff prevention by plant covers: a review", "Global food crisis looms as climate change and population growth strip fertile land", Africa may be able to feed only 25% of its population by 2025, "Global rainfall erosivity assessment based on high-temporal resolution rainfall records", "An assessment of the global impact of 21st century land use change on soil erosion", "Impacts of agriculture on aquatic ecosystems in the humid United States", "Sustainable development of water resources", "African Dust Called A Major Factor Affecting Southeast U.S. Air Quality", "Robotic Observations of Dust Storm Enhancement of Carbon Biomass in the North Pacific", "Scaling soil erosion models in space and time", "Soil erodibility in Europe: A high-resolution dataset based on LUCAS", "A New European Slope Length and Steepness Factor (LS-Factor) for Modeling Soil Erosion by Water", "Estimating the soil erosion cover-management factor at the European scale", "Modelling the effect of support practices (P-factor) on the reduction of soil erosion by water at European scale", "Validation of field-scale soil erosion models using common datasets", "Evaluation of field-scale and catchment scale soil erosion models", "The G2 erosion model: An algorithm for month-time step assessments", "The creation of cultivable land through terracing", "Windbreaks, hedgerows, and woodland corridors", "Global perspectives on birds in agricultural landscapes", "Carbon sequestration potential of agroforestry practices in temperate North America", "Cover Crops for Conservation Tillage Methods", "The Advantages of the Fibrous Root & Taproot Systems", Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability. This is a serious problem for farmers. Topsoil is the top layer of soil and is the most fertile because it contains the most organic, nutrient-rich materials. The loss of soil from farmland may be reflected in reduced crop production potential, lower surface water quality and damaged drainage networks.Soil erosion could also cause sinkholes. This natural process is caused by the dynamic activity of erosive agents, that is, water, ice (glaciers), snow, air (wind), plants, animals, and humans. That means; these processes occur in nature, on Earth’s crust.Weathering is the breaking down or dissolving of rocks and minerals on the surface of Earth while erosion is a process where … Removal of rock or soil as clastic sediment is referred to as physical or mechanical erosion; this contrasts with chemical erosion, where soil or rock material is removed from an area by dissolution. The main difference between weathering and erosion is that weathering is a long term process, but in contrast, erosion is a short term process.. Soil erosion is a continuous process that occurs either slowly or at an alarming rate. Soil erosion was a big problem in the Midwestern United States in the 1930s dust bowl.. soil erosion - the washing away of soil by the flow of water eating away, eroding, erosion, wearing, wearing away - (geology) the mechanical process of wearing or … When sufficient energy is no longer available to transport the particles a third phase, deposition, occurs. erosion noun [U] (NEGATIVE EFFECT) C2 the fact of a good quality or situation being gradually lost or destroyed: The survey reveals a gradual erosion of the president's popularity and support. However, landslides can be classified in a much more detailed way that reflects the mechanisms responsible for the movement and the velocity at which the movement occurs. In a number of regions of the earth, entire sectors of a country have been rendered unproductive. In some cases, the slump is caused by water beneath the slope weakening it. [10], Gully erosion occurs when runoff water accumulates and rapidly flows in narrow channels during or immediately after heavy rains or melting snow, removing soil to a considerable depth. [37], The topography of the land determines the velocity at which surface runoff will flow, which in turn determines the erosivity of the runoff. In all stages of stream erosion, by far the most erosion occurs during times of flood, when more and faster-moving water is available to carry a larger sediment load. [47] Heavy grazing reduces vegetative cover and causes severe soil compaction, both of which increase erosion rates. The upper layer of soil on farms typically contain the most nutrients and is best suited for growing crops. [114] Forages have a fibrous root system, which helps combat erosion by anchoring the plants to the top layer of the soil, and covering the entirety of the field, as it is a non-row crop. https://www.thefreedictionary.com/soil+erosion, The government has urged farmers in Lanao del Sur to plant fruit-bearing trees and coffee at the Lake Lanao Watershed Reservation to address, This development has resulted in permanent alteration of the geomorphic and hydrological settings of the landscape leading to increased, TEHRAN (FNA)- Head of the Nuclear Agriculture Research Center of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) Ebrahim Maqiseh said the center's researchers are working on a plan which enables them to measure, Hugh Bennett, director of the Department of Interior's, However, one of the drawbacks of furrow irrigation is the, The plantings prevent soil and nutrients from washing into waterways, reduce, Baghdad (NINA) -- Technical Agriculture Ministry Undersecretary, Mahdi Dhamad Al Qaisi, discussed with a specialized delegation from the Ministry of Environment means of handling the desertification phenomenon and, Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary, the webmaster's page for free fun content, IMPACT OF AGRO-ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS ON SOIL EROSION PROCESSES AND SOIL PROPERTIES ON HILLY LANDSCAPE IN WESTERN LITHUANIA, Soil erosion estimation using remote sensing techniques in Wadi Yalamlam Basin, Saudi Arabia, A review of road-related soil erosion: an assessment of causes, evaluation techniques and available control measures, Iranian Researchers Estimating Soil Erosion near Rivers Using N. Technology, Scenario studies on effects of soil infiltration rates, land slope, and furrow irrigation characteristics on furrow irrigation-induced erosion, RISK ASSESSMENT OF SOIL EROSION IN RAWAL WATERSHED USING GEOINFORMATICS TECHNIQUES, Farmers sign up 1.7 million acres in CRP, but program acreage continues to shrink, Mapping soil erosion and sediment yield susceptibility using RUSLE, Remote Sensing and GIS (case study: Cham Gardalan Watershed, Iran), Ministries of Agriculture, Environment discuss use of new technologies to fight desertification, Soil Erosion and Drainage Management Plan, Soil Erosion and Sedimentation Control Plan, Soil Erosion Control and Agroforestry Project. The effects of soil erosion can be felt on-site, meaning at the site of soil disruption, because soil quality is reduced. There are various solutions to soil erosion, which depend on the conditions under which erosion occurs. This was developed in the 1960s and 1970s. [68] Approximately 40% of the world's agricultural land is seriously degraded. [74], Soil erosion (especially from agricultural activity) is considered to be the leading global cause of diffuse water pollution, due to the effects of the excess sediments flowing into the world's waterways. Longer, steeper slopes (especially those without adequate vegetative cover) are more susceptible to very high rates of erosion during heavy rains than shorter, less steep slopes. WEPS has several uses: assisting land managers in reducing wind erosion, establishing soil loss tolerance in conservation plans, and determining erosion susceptibility of soils. [87], The most commonly used model for predicting soil loss from water erosion is the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). Generally, where water erosion rates on disturbed upland areas are greatest, rills are active. Erodibility of soil. Erosion definition, the act or state of eroding; state of being eroded. Erosion, physical process in which soil, rock, and other surface material are removed from one location and transported to another. This process is thought to be essential to the formation of new soil. One of the visible topographical manifestations of a very slow form of such activity is a scree slope. These airborne soil particles are often contaminated with toxic chemicals such as pesticides or petroleum fuels, posing ecological and public health hazards when they later land, or are inhaled/ingested. Also Read: What is Soil? [24], Wind erosion is much more severe in arid areas and during times of drought. May 2011. Erosion control in urban areas often relates to rainwater run-off and construction issues. Introduction. One major problem is that the USLE cannot simulate gully erosion, and so erosion from gullies is ignored in any USLE-based assessment of erosion. [70] In Africa, if current trends of soil degradation continue, the continent might be able to feed just 25% of its population by 2025, according to UNU's Ghana-based Institute for Natural Resources in Africa.[71]. The results is an extensive global data collection effort produced the Global Rainfall Erosivity Database (GloREDa) which includes rainfall erosivity for 3,625 stations and covers 63 countries. Paragraph # Meaning of Soil Erosion: Soil erosion is the process by which the existing soil type undergoes negative modifica­tion. The biodiversity of aquatic plant and algal life is reduced, and invertebrates are also unable to survive and reproduce. [ + of] Sediments containing more clay tend to be more resistant to erosion than those with sand or silt, because the clay helps bind soil particles together. [18], At extremely high flows, kolks, or vortices are formed by large volumes of rapidly rushing water. [51][52], Deforestation causes increased erosion rates due to exposure of mineral soil by removing the humus and litter layers from the soil surface, removing the vegetative cover that binds soil together, and causing heavy soil compaction from logging equipment. Soil erosion is a natural or artificial process where the top layers of soil are blown or washed away from wind or water. Soil erosion occurs because of water run-off, tillage, agricultural practices, construction and nature. The wet areas include; the shores of Lake Victoria, Kigezi highlands, Nyanza province, Imatong hills in southern Tanzania. Soil erosion is the displacement of the upper layer of soil; it is a form of soil degradation. Proper usage and audio pronunciation (plus IPA phonetic transcription) of the word soil erosion. Areas with the finer soil are at a higher risk of intense soil erosion than those with coarse types. It results in a continuous loss of topsoil, ecological degradation, soil collapse, etc. Their complex root structures are known to help reduce wave damage from storms and flood impacts while binding and building soils. Intensive agriculture, deforestation, roads, anthropogenic climate change and urban sprawl are amongst the most significant human activities in regard to their effect on stimulating erosion. When strong winds blow, the topsoil along with the organic matter is carried away by the wind. [59][60], Studies on soil erosion suggest that increased rainfall amounts and intensities will lead to greater rates of soil erosion. Les dossiers thématiques du CSFD. [51] However it is the forest floor, more than the canopy, that prevents surface erosion. It increases the permeability of the soil to rainwater, thus decreasing runoff. Soil forms at about the same rate that it naturally erodes, meaning that humans are currently stripping away the soil at a very unsustainable rate. In this contest the following figures speak about […] Soil erosion is the displacement of the upper layer of soil; it is a form of soil degradation. Soil erosion is the global soil degradation problem that causes significant environmental and socio-economic problems (Eswaran et al., 2001; Gomes de Souza et al., 2018;Ighodaro et al., 2013). Guidelines for coastal managers & policy makers. Erosion, physical process in which soil, rock, and other surface material are removed from one location and transported to another. [15], Thermal erosion is the result of melting and weakening permafrost due to moving water. [69] According to the United Nations, an area of fertile soil the size of Ukraine is lost every year because of drought, deforestation and climate change. The geo-statistical approach allows, for the first time, the thorough incorporation into a global soil erosion model of land use and changes in land use, the extent, types, spatial distribution of global croplands and the effects of different regional cropping systems. Erosion is the loss of soil. Factors that contribute to erosion’s impact may depend on the topography of the area, ... As splash erosion displaces the soil it also diminishes infiltration, meaning the water can’t be absorbed into the ground and accumulates on top of the soil. Soil Erosion in Europe. The model operates using agricultural databases and user inputs to run a series of submodels, including hydrology, land management, soil type, plant growth, decomposition, and erosion. soil erosion - translate into Czech with the English-Czech Dictionary - Cambridge Dictionary The result of erosion is the removal of top soil and its vital nutrients. the G2 model. 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